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Sewage Treatment Plants

Wastewater treatment is a process to convert wastewater – which is water no longer needed or suitable for its most recent use – into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cycle with minimal environmental issues or reused. The latter is called water reclamation and implies avoidance of disposal by use of treated wastewater effluent for various purposes. Treatment means removing impurities from water being treated; and some methods of treatment are applicable to both water and wastewater. The physical infrastructure used for wastewater treatment is called a “wastewater treatment plant” (WWTP).
 
The treatment of wastewater belongs to the overarching field of sanitation, with the management of human waste, solid waste, sewage treatment, stormwater (drainage) management, and water treatment. By-products from wastewater treatment plants, such as screenings, grit and sewage sludge may also be treated in a wastewater treatment plant. If the wastewater is predominantly from municipal sources (households and small industries) it is called sewage and its treatment is called sewage treatment.
 
A typical municipal sewage treatment plant in an industrialized country may include primary treatment to remove solid material, secondary treatment to remove dissolved and suspended organic material as well as the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, and – sometimes but not always – disinfection to kill disease-causing micro-organisms. The sewage sludge that is produced in sewage treatment plants undergoes sludge treatment. Larger municipalities often include factories discharging industrial wastewater into the municipal sewer system. The term “sewage treatment plant” is nowadays often replaced with the term “wastewater treatment plant”.

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